As cities in developing world are under demographic transition and the forces of economic liberalization taking grip over them, they are engulfed by a number of problems. The pressures of globalization, however, demand these cities to be more competitive and their governance to be responsive to promote economic growth. Unfortunately, most cities are not well equipped to tackle some of these problems, which led to the failure of local government institutions in the provision of public goods and services in an efficient and effective manner. Such failures provide an institutional vaccum in the service delivery process. Non-profit networks can emerge in such settings by forging partnerships among the stakeholders, thereby, steering appropriate governance structures. This paper discusses such institutional innovations in the form of partnership models emerging in the cities of Bangalore and Mumbai as illustrations worth examining and emulating.
The present paper is an outcome of a research project on Urbanisation and Development Scenario in Maharashtra. Nineteen variables related to urbanisation as well as physical and social infrastructure have been analysed. The analysis reveals only marginal changes in the patterns of urbanisation and development over years. This is primarily because the development process has always been w.r.t. through industrialisation and emergence of other non-farm activities. The paper emphasises that agriculture that has provided the basic capital for the process needs to be looked upon as the key sector bringing about development. In the end, an attempt has been made to construct a general model of Urbanisation and development process in the state of Maharashtra.
Cities have always been centres of attraction due to a variety of business activities and their major contribution towards economic development. The City Municipal Corporation play a major role in this contribution. They are not only managers of the cities but also have the responsibility to provide various sets of services to the city dwellers. Though, these cities are a major source of income for the ULBs, they are not able to generate enough revenue for the local bodies governing it. This has resulted in the ULB's reeling under immense need of financial resources to manage they functioning. This has critically affected its public service delivery systems and availability of services. There have been serious efforts towards mobilizing resources that include both innovative taxes and changes in administration. Recent changes in the property tax administration in the MCD are a case in the point. It is estimated that these reforms will raise revenue for the local body. However, there are certain dynamics behind these changes that also need to be addressed to translate it into a successful reform.
Women are generally seen as passive migrants migrating with the family. The fact that women can also move for work has not received much attention in migration literature in general and more so in India. This article analyses the reasons behind migration of female migrant workers who migrated from rural to urban areas. Firstly, the article shows that the migrants in question are not passive movers but have actually moved for employment and secondly it finds the reasons for which the women have migrated. The uniqueness of the study is that it applies several criteria to show that the women migrants in question are not passive movers and have migrated for employment. It also finds that the reasons cited by the migrants are mostly related to women. The analysis is based on a survey of female migrant service workers in the informal sector of Delhi, the capital city of India.
Waste-pickers shoulder a part of the burden of municipal bodies, which are unable to collect the entire waste generated in the cities especially in the Third-World. At first sight it therefore seems that waste-picking is predicated on the inability of municipal bodies to collect entire solid waste. However, the analysis of intricate process of capitalism, flexibilism and automation indicates that the activity exists as there is a so called excess supply of labour. In the contemporary Third World, the root-cause of poverty is unemployment. The poor work with waste material for survival as they are denied access to resources that are available to the better-off. Waste-pickers, lying at the bottom most rung of the social and economic ladder, are exposed to various types of exploitation from every quarter. Nevertheless, informal waste collection that is detrimental to the health and life of the workers continues to flourish as it absorbs the migrant and 'unskilled' workforce that is considered less suitable for obtaining work in the so called modern formal sector. This sector also exists to serve as a source of raw-material for the comparatively large-scale recycling industry. But the benefit of this industry hardly reaches to the bottom.