The literature on migration offers a plethora of migrant typologies. There is, however, an inherent male bias in the construction of these typologies, which hardly distinguish between male and female typologies. This paper discusses the different types of migration studied in the literature and the appropriateness of each for female migration. The focus is on rural-urban female migration. The discussion attempts to dissect the prevailing concepts that affect female migration and make it look passive. The analysis is based on data from a survey on female migrant workers in Delhi. It is found that the prevailing notions that women are short distance migrants, rural-urban female migration is not significant and women are always long duration migrants need to be viewed carefully. The paper points that maong the various criteria influencing migration, 'reason' affects female migration the most. Further, for a meaningful analysis of women's migration, there is first a need to construct typologies sensitive to women.
The main thrust of this paper is to examine the patterns of finances in urban local bodies (ULBs) in Maharashtra and present a comparative picture thereof. The paper also brings forth some problems especially related to data and suggests ways for remedying the situation. This is contextualized within the parameters set by the devolution patterns to local bodies that have been envisaged by Central and State Finance Commissions on the one hand, and the 74th Constitution Amendment Act, 1992 on the other. The paper begins with a prologue that provides a backdrop with information about the ULBs in Maharashtra along with some regulatory and conceptual features. The core of the paper focuses on data analysis and comments about the expenditure and revenue patterns of Municipal Corporations, and Municipal Councils in the state. The paper then proceeds to highlight the problems arising out of data inadequacies. The last section on concluding reflections highlights what needs to be done.
Migrant populations are at a high risk of poor health in general and HIV infection in particular than the overall population. According to UNAIDS, 2000, Maharashtra is the most HIV infected state in India. Within Maharashtra, Mumbai has the highest number of AIDS cases. Others high prevalence districts in the state are Pune and Kolhapur. Pune is the second largest city in Maharashtra. After 1961, due to industrialisation Pune attracted a lot of migrants from all over the country and in particular from the neighbouring districts for employment. The majority of these migrants are poor and initially they migrate alone. Due to poverty they live in slums, under unhygienic conditions and therefore are prone to indulge in risk taking behaviour. This paper studies the demographic characteristics of HIV/AIDS infected migrants in the Yerwada slum of Pune. Awareness about the disease, the risk taking behaviour of the respondents and the socioeconomic impact of HIV/AIDS on the migrants and their household are examined.
This paper is an attempt to evaluate the myth that (i) government/policy makers decide in air-conditioned chambers (ii) no systematic efforts are made while formulating reforms (iii) public representatives are not involved in the reform exercises. Towards this end a detailed case study of the new Rajasthan Property/House Tax reform, 2003, is presented tracing out the process, time, public opinion and research made before introducing the new change. The paper shows that the recommendations and suggestions made by various commissions and committees involved in the exercise were important considerations while introducing the reform. The change itself was brought about in a democratic manner only after a rigorous and systematic study of the issues involved. Hence, it may be expected to bring about the desired improvements in the financial position of the ULBs of Rajasthan.