Maharashtra, as we know it today, came into existence on May 1, 1960. During 1961-91, the state has had a high level of urbanisation compared to India as a whole. A large part of this increase is due to migration into large cities, and hence, the spatial pattern of urbanisation has not changed over the years, except for some extensions. Intensification in the neighbourhood of large cities, however, exists. While urbanisation during the colonial period was driven by external forces, the tendency towards concentration has changed only marginally during the post-independence period. Regional policy measures had little effect in modifying the pattern of urbanisation. The tertiary sector, particularly trade and commerce, had been instrumental in bringing about urbanisation in the past. Manufacturing has been another important city-forming force. But the pattern is slowly undergoing a change. Communication and professional services are becoming increasingly important. The construction sector too is booming during the recent period. This paper tries to bring out the changes in the spatial pattern of urbanisation in Maharashtra over the period 1961-91 and then to relate them to those in its occupational structure.
The migrant population of rural origin found in Indian cities belongs to two distinct groups: permanent migrants and temporary migrants. The second category of migrants comes to the city with no intention to settle there permanently. They often shift their residence between the city and their native village, in response to fluctuations in demand for their labour between slack and peak seasons in agriculture. The paper examines the special characteristics of such migrants and the salient features of temporary migration. The paper points out that the migrants suffer several privations during their stay in the city. Yet they keep coming to the city periodically in order to ensure their families' survival in the village.
This paper is an attempt to examine the status and problems related to basic services including water supply, sanitation, solid waste management, health, etc. in the resettlement colonies of Delhi. For this purpose, three resettlement colonies namely Trilokpuri, Dakshinpuri and Tigri were taken up for in-depth analysis. The findings are based on a field survey of 300 household heads, as well as observations of the author during field visits and discussions with opinion leaders. The study finds that there is no uniformity in the problems related to basic services amongst the different colonies, as well as between services in the same colony. Based on the findings, the author recommends involvement of non-governmental organisations and people's participation to improve the level of basic services. Coordination among the local government, NGOs and the people is essential to bring about an effective understanding between them so that instead of hindering each others functioning, they work in cooperation towards achieving better service provision.
Water is a vital element for all kinds of life, in and out of the city, and its reliable and safe supply in an environmentally sensitive manner is crucial for the urban and economic development. There is a need to reconnect sustainable urban water policy to infrastructure management by highlighting how the adoption of supply-led or more demand-responsive modes of infrastructure provision critically shapes the sustainability of the system in contemporary cities. All these pay testament to the underlying, still unresolved, question - how to frame a vision for the management of municipal water systems in line with the principles of sustainability and then translate this vision into more operational policy directions. The paper reviews the state-of-the-art to define urban water sustainability indicators to meet demand, quality, equity, efficiency and affordability criteria. After describing the urban water cycle and its components briefly, the author discusses the concept of sustainability in urban water with reference to the previous analysis of the literature and synthesis. Next, the framework to assess and analyse urban water sustainability is attempted through indicators covering equity and efficiency criteria. Finally, strategies for sustainable urban water systems are discussed with policy recommendations and conclusions.