This paper combines two approaches to study the duration of home-to-work journeys. A statistical analysis based on a Heckman selection model allows us to distinguish two distinct processes: the 'choice' to work at home or outside, and the constraints specific to commuting to the workplace. The individual and contextual favouring home-based work are first examined, then those affecting the duration of actual home-to-work journeys. Some variables usually associated to commuting times are effective only in the initial choice of working outside home. This model is tested in the context of two Southern metropolises, Bogota and Delhi, using data from identical surveys. This comparative analysis highlights two sets of factors influencing daily commuting: some generic variables with similar effects in both cities, and some variables reflecting social and cultural characteristics of home-based work or the spatial pattern of housing and employment in the metropolitan areas.
This paper highlights issues in financing urban infrastructure in Punjab, especially limitations in the mobilisation of local municipal finances, fiscal decentralisation, accessing capital market and improving urban management practices. The paper argues that there is an urgent need to go for reforms in these areas to enhance municipal fiscal capability for financing urban infrastructure in the state. A number of alternatives, strategies and innovations to meet the growing urban challenges and financing urban infrastructure in the state have been suggested.
The deteriorating quality of services in urban areas is a major issue confronting developing countries. Recent research confirms that the cause of this problem lies in the form in which governance prevails in an area. Hence, there is an urgent need to examine the problems involved in service delivery in the context of good governance norms. It is against this backdrop that the author examines the extent of 'participation' in the operation of three municipal services - water supply, sewerage and disposal of solid waste - in three urban centres of Meerut district of Uttar Pradesh. The analysis reveals that participation is limited to the public sector and to certain influential groups within the local government setup, which has led to deterioration in service levels. The author suggests that the centre, state and local government units should create conditions to promote popular participation in service delivery at the local level and that innovative practices should be developed and implemented with the active involvement of the citizens.