Water Resources Assessment (WRA) is a tool to evaluate water resources in relation to a reference frame, or to evaluate the dynamics of the water resource, in relation to human impacts or demand.
Management of water resources in India is of paramount importance to sustain one billion-plus population. Water management is a composite area with linkage to various sectors of Indian economy including the agricultural, industrial, domestic and household, power, environment, fisheries and transportation sector. The water resources management practices should be based on increasing the water supply and managing the water demand under the stressed water availability conditions. There is an interplay of various factors that govern access and utilization of water resources and in light of the increasing demand for water, it becomes important to look for holistic and people-centered approaches for water management.
The city has taken stock of existing water resources, its uses for various sectors; projected future water demand and water availability for at least five years using different methods (e.g. time series analysis, multiple linear regression, among others).
Submitting data in the format of .kml is additional evidence. Cities can approach GIS experts or use Google Earth software for mapping. Cities submitting evidence with alternative methods will also be considered.
Wastewater recycling is a process of converting wastewater into water that can be reused for other purposes by adequate secondary and tertiary treatment. Secondary treatment of wastewater makes use of oxidation to purify wastewater (e.g. activated sludge processes, trickling filters or biofilters, oxidation ditches, and rotating biological contactors). Tertiary treatment improves the quality of treated water, using steps such as nutrient removal, membrane filtration and ultraviolet disinfection. Reuse may be in diverse avenues such as non-potable domestic use; horticulture, agricultural, power plants, industries among others.
The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), statutory organization. It serves as a field formation and also provides technical services to the Ministry of Environment and Forests of the provisions of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. Principal Functions of the CPCB, as spelt out in the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974, and the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981, (i) to promote cleanliness of streams and wells in different areas of the States by prevention, control and abatement of water pollution, and (ii) to improve the quality of air and to prevent, control or abate air pollution in the country.
Risk is a quantification of hazard. Risk mapping is the activity where elements at risk are plotted. Risk maps may include certain guidance, advice and indication of escape routes, safe access ways, etc.
Simple techniques can range from mapping of locations at risk through field visits and questionnaires to satellite-based mapping of potentially inundated areas. Refer Page 73 for a rapid flood risk assessment for Mumbai.
An urban flood risk management plan has to start with the assessment of present and future flood risks. The clear understanding and distinction between the three components that define the degree of risk, i.e., hazard, vulnerability and ability to cope with, provides the necessary information for the overall management of risks. Risk assessment has to be carried out in an integrated manner, i.e. identifying all the possible hazards, including the consequence of urbanization or other development activities in future.
The flooding risk hotspots are defined as zones that are relatively likely to be exposed to flooding; in other words, the flooding risk hotspots can be seen as areas in which high probability of occurrence of flooding (high hazard) coincides with an area of high exposure. It is important to underline that delineation of hotspots cannot replace a comprehensive evaluation of flooding risk based on accurate hazard and vulnerability assessment.
If there is a flood risk, the city had prepared a plan to address the risk. The plan presents clear strategies of how the risk will be the mitigated.
Refer: Chapter 09 (Pg. 96) Implementation of these guidelines on FM will result in the formulation of FMPs by the central ministries/departments, the state governments, the district authorities, the rural and urban local bodies and other stakeholders. The salient activities to be covered in the FMPs will include:
The tool kits for the preparation of the Master Plan for Water Supply, Waste Water, Drainage and Solid Waste Management were prepared under Technical Assistance (ADB-TA 7055 - Component B) to enhance the capacity of National Capital Region Planning Board and its implementing agencies in project identification and preparation of master plans and detailed engineering design for urban infrastructure. The TA has been funded by the Asian Development Bank and administered and supported by NCRPB, Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD), Government of India. These documents are designed to help decision-makers and practitioners in states and urban local bodies who are planning with urban infrastructure. In addition, officials within the NCRPB may productively refer to these documents when appraising project for funding.
Refer – Slide 15 Managing stormwater on roads in urban and industrial areas is channelizing the same to groundwater system in a hygienic manner. This method not only helps in controlling the devastating effects of stormwater but would also improve the groundwater regime, both in terms of rising water levels and an increase in groundwater availability. The techniques will also increase the life of roads and reduce cost on maintenance and repairs. Besides, better plant growth is envisaged with less water requirement due to the moist condition of surface soil through percolation structures.
Water supply systems are massive consumers of energy, which is consumed in each of the stages of the water production and supply chain: starting from pumping the water to the water treatment plant, along the treatment process and while distributing the water via the network.
Energy efficiency may be achieved by improving the pump station design, system design, installation of Variable Speed Drives to pumps, and operating pumps efficiently. Leakage reduction would bring to significant savings in power consumption.
There are many equipments that use energy in a water supply management system. However, water pumps account for maximum usage. Therefore, energy-efficient pumps have been considered here to be a representative of energy-efficient equipment. An energy-efficient pump is defined as pumps that have BEE rating ≥ 3 stars.
Refer: Chapter 01 - Introduction: Energy Saving and Production in Wastewater Systems – Pg. 8
Energy efficiency offers a means of cost reduction for utilities and municipalities and contributes to reducing energy demand. An increase of energy efficiency in wastewater treatment plants is possible by replacing plant components (such as pumps and air blowers) or by the complete reengineering of the treatment process. Sludge drying through solar radiation in a greenhouse instead of drying through thermal energy also saves energy. Biogas and combined heat and power (CHP) technologies offer opportunities for energy production in wastewater treatment, either to cover the plant’s own energy needs (heat and electricity) or to feed electricity back into the grid. Here, co-generation of biogas during sludge digestion or incineration of sludge pellets after drying in power plants present two technical possibilities.
There are many equipments that use energy in a wastewater management system However, wastewater pumps account for the maximum usage of energy. Therefore, energy-efficient pumps have been considered here to be a representative of energy-efficient equipment. Energy-efficient pumps are defined as pumps that have BEE rating ≥ 3 stars.
Cities needs to establish the quantity of water being treated. Reduction of energy consumption while treating wastewater is recommended but if the city is treating maximum amount of wastewater (with quality standard as per guidelines) then it may be considered while evaluating. Cities may get an advantage if they are producing good quality water from treatment plant and relevant evidences for the same are provided.