Source reduction, also known as waste prevention, is the elimination of waste before it is created. It involves the purchase or use of materials and products to reduce the amount or toxicity of what is thrown away. Source reduction has a very significant impact on a waste management system as it reduces both the quantity and the toxicity of the waste. It helps to promote the efficient use of discarded products and resources, as they have not been contaminated by the toxic or contaminated waste removed at source. This saves the cost of construction, operation and maintenance of centralized waste treatment and disposal options.
Fractions within the municipal solid waste, that are combustible in nature but are not recyclable such as soiled paper, soiled cloth, contaminated plastics, multilayer, packaging materials, other packaging materials, pieces of leather, rubber, tyre, polystyrene (thermocol), wood etc. These are known as Segregated Combustible Fraction (SCF). SCF has remained a challenge and these fractions unwantedly end up at landfill sites. These fractions can be processed and converted to refuse derived fuel (RDF), which carries significant calorific value, and can be utilized as alternative fuel in various industries in line with the principle of waste to wealth.
A facility where recyclable municipal solid waste is processed and separated using manual and/or mechanical methods. The recovered materials may include paper, glass, plastics, and metals, which are baled, temporarily stored, and eventually sold to recycling or manufacturing firms. The remaining residual wastes are then disposed of into a sanitary landfill. MRFs can process either the source, separated recyclables or mixed wastes, in which case the biodegradable components can be processed into compost in another facility.
The broad value chain for Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) services. The entire value chain can be unbundled into various components, including source segregation, collection, transportation, secondary storage, processing & treatment and disposal.
Refer – Chapter 2. PPP in MSWM – status, issues and challenges (Section 2.1– Pg. 19)
Recycled aggregates – It is a term used to describe crushed concrete or asphalt from construction and demolition (C&D) waste that is reused. This collection of construction refuse is mainly used for road base, cement concrete or other infrastructure projects. The use of recycled materials for construction is a sustainable move in the construction industry. It prevents materials from having to be collected for building while also preventing more refuse from entering the landfill. This process can be easily done at the demolition site or even a permanent C&D waste management facility.
Recycled Concrete Aggregates - The crushed concrete aggregates, also called as 'recycled concrete aggregates', are fragments and pieces of concrete buildings which are demolished or rebuild. These crushed concretes are cleaned from dirt and broken to smaller pieces to manufacture aggregate which is termed as recycled aggregate.
Construction and Demolition (C&D) waste is generated whenever any construction or demolition takes place. These wastes consist of mostly inert and non-biodegradable material like concrete, tiles, brick aggregates, plaster, wood, plastics, gypsum, glass, metals, solvents, asphalt, asbestos, excavated soil & rock particles etc, many of which can be recycled.
The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change notified the Construction & Demolition Waste Management Rules in 2016. The rules are an initiative to effectively tackle the issues of pollution and waste management.
As a prelude to encouraging cities to improve urban sanitation, Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) has been conducting surveys of the cities implementing Swachh Bharat Mission to encourage large-scale citizen participation and create awareness, amongst all sections of society, about the importance of working together towards making towns and cities a better place to live in. In order for cities to reap the maximum developmental benefits from the survey, concerted efforts are being taken to strengthen the capacities of the cities to understand the modalities and spirit of the survey.
The Government of India has revamped the Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules 2000 and notified the new Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016 on April 8, 2016.
A scientific landfill is constructed as a sustainable space for waste disposal and treatment of municipal solid waste. The technology deployed in constructing a scientific landfill is simple and a scientific landfill ensures complete control over gas developed in the landfill and leachate (water that has infiltrated through a solid and leached out) as well as limited access of vectors such as rodents and flies to the waste.
A gas flare, alternatively known as a flare stack, is a gas combustion device used prominently in scientific landfills, mainly to prevent the landfill gases' discharge in the environment. Landfill gas mainly constitutes of methane and carbon dioxide which are both Greenhouse gases and should not be released in the atmosphere without flaring in a scientific landfill facility.
Landfill capping is a containment technology that forms a barrier between the contaminated media and the surface, thereby shielding humans and the environment from the harmful effects of its contents and perhaps limiting the migration of the contents. A cap must restrict surface water infiltration into the contaminated sub-surface to reduce the potential for contaminants to leach from the site.