It refers to usage of cleaner fuel in vehicles which helps in reduction of GHG emissions in transportation sector. In this indicator, the focus is on ‘shared vehicles’ which is defined as any mode of transportation that is shared by users on a as-needed basis, from bikes to 4-wheelers to mass transit can constitute shared mobility. Shared mobility includes the movement of both people and goods. It includes both public transport and intermediate public transport modes.
India is set to transition to shared mobility with increased dependence on app based taxi usage and IPT modes like auto rickshaws. If this is done in coherence with switching to low carbon fuels, GHG emissions and air pollution can be reduced significantly.
The clean technologies shared vehicles included in this assessment are buses, taxies, app- based cabs, app based two wheelers, autos, e-rickshaws, private buses and ferries consuming fuel types like - CNG/ LPG/ Hybrid/ Biofuels/ Electric.
The RTO registration data is the recommended source for collecting data on the number of shared vehicles.
This data set is specific to cab aggregators that are registered with transport departments as aggregators and own their taxi fleet. The data needs to be procured from this department or directly through the registered cab aggregators. However, it is acknowledged that this data may/ may not be readily available, in that case, cities may mark it as zero. In addition, the city must provide a declaration that data was not made available by the said department or cab aggregators. Besides, if the city does not have any process for collecting the required data, they are advised to establish a system for the same.
Public Transport modes are the shared modes of transportation catering to general public. They operate on fixed routes inside the city. Public Transport modes are usually owned and operated by public agencies. In some cases, public private partnership (PPP) models may also be present. The public transport modes included in this indicator are buses, metro coaches, suburban rail coaches and ferries.
No, any privately operated buses are not mass transportation mode and will not be considered for this indicator. Public Transport modes are usually owned and operated by public agencies. In some cases, public-private partnership (PPP) models may also be considered. However, if the buses to industrial areas are regulated and operated in agreement with public agency i.e. via PPP model, then they may be considered.
Fleet size of the city can be calculated using the following conversion units below:
Standard Bus (capacity-65) = 1 PTU
Midi Bus (capacity-45) = 0.7 PTU
Mini Bus (capacity-35) =0.55 PTU
Metro coach = 3 PTU
Train coach = 3 PTU
Ferry = 3 PTU
Note: Public Transport Unit (PTU)
Example: A city has 10 Standard Buses, 10 Mini Buses and 10 Mid Buses in a total of 30 buses at the city level.
To calculate the fleet size of Buses, the following process can be followed:
Fleet size of Buses = (Standard Buses * 1 + Mini Buses * 0.75 + Mid Buses * 0.55) PTU
Fleet size of Buses = (10*1+10*0.75+10*0.55) PTU
Fleet size of Buses = (10+7.5+5.5) PTU
Fleet size of Buses = 23 PTU
In a similar manner, Metros/Trains/Ferries can also be calculated.
Non-Motorised Transport (NMT) includes mainly walking, cycling and cycle rickshaws. All of them are green modes of transport: their carbon footprint is low; energy consumption is minimal and their local emissions are zero. Also, they are not dependent on fossil fuels and therefore inexpensive compared to motorized transport.
Refer to the Design of Urban Roads - Code of Practice documents by MoHUA.
The footpath and cycle lanes along the roads will only be considered for the assessment. Please refer MOHUA guidelines on street design for identifying these.
For data pertaining to indicator 3, please submit for the timeline of June/July 2019 to July/Aug 2020. For indicator 1 & 2 in Mobility sector, please submit data until August 2020.
The city is requested to provide details of footpath or cycle track or cycle lanes for arterial roads, sub-arterial roads, and public transport Corridor. Please note, whether the given road has footpath or cycle track or cycle lanes or both footpath and cycle tracks or cycle lanes on a single side or both sides of the road stretch, the length of footpath or cycle track or cycle lanes will be taken as the single length of that road stretch.
For example: If 1-kilometre road length has
NMT plans have several components which can be determined by referring to the following documents and toolkits:
*Please note that the above list is not exhaustive.
The National Clean Air Programme was launched by the Government of India for comprehensive mitigation actions for the prevention, control and abatement of air pollution, besides augmenting the air quality monitoring network across the country and strengthening the awareness and capacity-building activities. As part of this policy, 102 cities in India have been identified for implementing mitigation actions under the programme.
Refer: Chapter 01_ Section - I.III National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) – Pg.15
WHO air quality guidelines for particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide.
Air quality index (AQI) is a numerical scale used for reporting day-to-day air quality concerning human health and the environment. The daily results of the index are used to convey to the public an estimate of air pollution level. An increase in air quality index signifies increased air pollution and severe threats to human health. In most cases, AQI indicates how clean or polluted the air in our surrounding is, and the associated health risks it might present. The AQI centres on the health effects that may be experienced within a few days or hours after breathing polluted air.
The National Ambient Air Quality Standards mentions 12 pollutants but not all cities monitor all of them. If we look at the country as a whole, PM10, PM2.5, NOx and SOx are considered as the major pollutants. Hence, it has been included in the list of four pollutants at level 4. However, cities may provide monitoring data for any other pollutants.