Urban India 2019 | Jan - Jun

Submitted by psharma@niua.org on 14 August 2019 - 1:49pm
Influence of ‘UDAN’ Scheme on Network and Regional Connectivity of Indian Airports

Indian domestic aviation has recently demonstrated a considerable growth in terms of passenger traffic and connectivity. Since 2013, the sector has recorded an annual growth rate of 15-20 percent in domestic sector alone. In addition to huge demand on existing high frequency routes, new connections were also established to existing and new airports. Following that, the demand in lower tier cities increased rapidly. As a result, aviation policies were drafted along with a vision of regional connectivity booster, formally known as ‘RCS-UDAN’. This paper studies NCAP (2016) and UDAN scheme with respect to domestic connectivity perspective and interactions among airports in India. It also evaluates the growth of existing airports in relation to tier system, hubbing nature and connections. Domestic network community of India is divided into four sub-communities of North, Central, East and South zones with at least one metro hub in each. Different network connectivity attributes like degree, k-value, Z-score, and participation coefficient (P.C.) are assessed over sub-communities in two scenarios: the network without UDAN routes and overall network including RCS -1 & 2. The study also coined two new indices namely, Hubbing Potential Index (H.P.I.), Community Index (C.I.) and Inter Community Coefficient (I.C.C.). Additionally, connectivity indices in community level (whole domestic network) were also examined to estimate its global outlook and conclusions are inferred. The results show that connectivity of Indian domestic network is augmented multiple times due to UDAN routes and new hubs are formed in different classes. It was also observed that average community indices of all airports have improved further, proving better regional connectivity. Many unconnected regions in India, especially the North-Eastern part, have made themselves visible in the aviation sector map. It has been possible due to liberal policies and semi-privatization strategies of the sector.

Amal Jose, Research Scholar and Prof. Sewa Ram, Department of Transport Planning, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi
Airport Noise and Urban Planning: A Case of Ahmedabad, India

With globalization, airports in India are increasing both in terms of numbers, size and operations. Airplane noise is one of the major environmental issues due to airports. In this study, noise pollution is estimated using Noise Model (Noise Exposure Forecasting Software) for Ahmedabad airport. The model uses the air traffic and operational data recorded by the airport for 2015-16. Model outputs are mapped in GIS to construct noise contours, which are then superimposed on the population density map to estimate the population exposed to high noise levels. In Ahmedabad, about 6.1 lakh (11percent) of the resident population is exposed to high noise levels (more than 60 dB) from airplanes.The study further investigates the policy framework for noise abatement in cities. The authors suggest exploring new approaches such as demarcating sensitive zones with special development control regulations combined with urban design measures for noise abatement instead of relying on blanket buffers.

Tushar Bose, Bhargav Adhvaryu Faculty of Technology, CEPT University, Ahmedabad Faculty of Technology, CEPT University, Ahmedabad , Sriporna Chakraborti Consultant, Gujarat Tourism Opportunity Limited, Gandhinagar
Assessing the Importance of Natural Amenities in Terms of Property Value in Urban Areas: A Study of Baner-Pashan Suburban Area, Pune

As housing is important for people living in cities, people make their choice of buying/renting a housing unit based on many factors. Housing unit value is, therefore, determined by multiple factors – that of property, environment, and individual. The presence of natural amenities like river, lake, beach, forest and hill is expected to have an influence on the property value, and property buyers like to either pay a premium or factor them implicitly in their choice of property and its value. In particular, this is the case for suburban areas of cities, which are plush with good amenities as well as
a good supply of housing units.

An attempt has been made in the current paper to understand the linkages between property value and environmental factors like the presence of natural amenities in the context of Pune city in India using the ‘hedonic pricing approach’. Primary data was obtained through a field survey of residential households and housing units located in Baner-Pashan suburban area of Pune, which has the presence of two natural amenities - lake as well as hill ridge. Hedonic pricing model has been developed using primary survey data so as to identify the important natural amenity(ies) that affect(s) residential property values.

The results of hedonic pricing model estimation show that access to natural amenities like hill ridge and lake (in terms of property located within 500 m distance from them) can affect both capital as well as rental value of residential property to an extent of Rs. 1,454 per sq. ft. and Rs. 4,257 per annum respectively in the study area. Further, apart from natural amenities, income (demand factor), awareness (psychological factor) and orientation (physical factor) also emerge as significant variables that affect both capital as well as rental values of properties in the study area. The results imply an implicit willingness-to-pay for natural amenities in the form of the corresponding property value premium for it.

Ramakrishna Nallathiga Associate Professor, Abhishek Appala, Sravani Reddy, Ganesh Gunupudi PG Students of REUIM, National Institute of Construction Management and Research, Pune
Probing the Context of Green Spaces in Urban Planning Framework in India

Pressure on the urban ecological system is widely recognised as an urban sustainability challenge in policy documents and scholarly articles. However, despite thorough articulation of multi-faceted ecological and social significance of urban green spaces (UGSs), the theme ‘urban green’ has remained a peripheral issue during plan implementation. This study investigates various approaches, by highlighting the benefits of UGSs, of protection of green spaces and urban green planning. The paper has come up with the submission that in light of urban sustainability goals, greater insights
are required on urban green space planning in Indian cities. The paper also proposes that a correct database on urban green spaces and sound strategies for every city are the need of the hour for Urban Local Bodies. Fair and effective implementation and enforcement regulations are also called for. The study concludes that UGSs are a vital component of intricate tools for urban environmental sustainability.

Kiran K. Singh Assistant Professor, Department of Geography and Geology, Central University of Punjab, Bhatinda
Indicator- Based Assessment of Vulnerabilities and Capacities of Wetland- Based Communities in Indian Cities

The efforts for preventing wetland loss and degradation specifically from urbanisation have been made for decades. The signing of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands was a global pledge for maintaining the ecological nature of all wetlands. However, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) and more recent analyses (Finlayson 2012; Gardner et al. 2015) have shown that this commitment has not been fulfilled. The reasons are many and complex, mainly the perception that conserving wetlands conflicts with efforts and needs of urban development and infrastructure expansion for immediate social and economic benefit. The failure to create major public awareness and government support indicates that an alternative approach is needed. The role that wetlands play in providing climate mitigation and adaptation services as socio-ecological resilient systems was also not foreseen when the Ramsar Convention entered into force. The objective of this paper is to work towards resilience by achieving efficient “wise use” of urban wetlands nurtured by the local community. The paper attempts to evaluate the character and degree of physical/ demographic, socio-economic and environmental vulnerabilities and capacities of the wetland-based community through an indicator-based scoring system. The indicator-based assessment was tested in East Kolkata Wetlands (EKW) in the city of Kolkata, India. The paper also explores pathways to environmental management, which are incomplete without socio-economic development of the community dependent on it.The efforts for preventing wetland loss and degradation specifically from urbanisation have been made for decades. The signing of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands was a global pledge for maintaining the ecological nature of all wetlands. However, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) and more recent analyses (Finlayson 2012; Gardner et al. 2015) have shown that this commitment has not been fulfilled. The reasons are many and complex, mainly the perception that conserving wetlands conflicts with efforts and needs of urban development and infrastructure expansion for immediate social and economic benefit. The failure to create major public awareness and government support indicates that an alternative approach is needed. The role that wetlands play in providing climate mitigation and adaptation services as socio-ecological resilient systems was also not foreseen when the Ramsar Convention entered into force. The objective of this paper is to work towards resilience by achieving efficient “wise use” of urban wetlands nurtured by the local community. The paper attempts to evaluate the character and degree of physical/ demographic, socio-economic and environmental vulnerabilities and capacities of the wetland-based community through an indicator-based scoring system. The indicator-based assessment was tested in East Kolkata Wetlands (EKW) in the city of Kolkata, India. The paper also explores pathways to environmental management, which are incomplete without socio-economic development of the community dependent on it.

Alokananda Banerjee Mukherjee Research Scholar and Suchandra Bardhan Professor, Dept. of Architecture,Jadavpur University, Kolkata
A Review of Peri-Urban Definitions, Land Use Changes and Challenges to Development

Peri-urban areas transition zones. With urbanization and increase in population, people are migrating to cities, thereby causing urban sprawl. Peri-urbanization has brought some important changes such as land use changes, contest for natural resources such as water and land, environmental degradation etc. Land use and land cover change is a major challenge of the periphery. Land use in urban and peri-urban areas has grown with increasing population and urbanization. Prior to industrialization, cities and towns were not developed. However, the modern cities of the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries sprawled into the countryside, resulting in structural changes due to the demands of urban dwellers. The peri-urban areas exhibit an intimate relationship between the city and its surroundings. Peri-urban definitions and land use changes and challenges to the development are the focus of this review.

Amrutha Mary Varkey Ph.D scholar and S.Manasi Associate Professor, Institute for Social and Economic Change, Bengaluru
Modeling for Elderly Mobility in Urban Neighbourhoods: Pedestrian Audits as Tools of Assessment and Proposals

Sustainable Neighbourhoods in urban areas are zones that essentially support pedestrian mobility; walking being the basic prerogative right - walking to work, for exercise, to shop or for joy. The research aims at understanding pedestrian mobility in residential neighbourhoods for elderly citizens in the city of Bangalore (Bengaluru), India. Elderly (60+ years) dwellers prefer walking as a major mode of commutation in their immediate neighbourhoods for their instrumental activities of daily livings (IADLs). Bangalore is one of the cosmopolitan cities, popularly known to be a “Pensioner’s paradise” and “Garden city”, that house over 10 million population. However, the public spaces as well as neighbourhood parks have faced the wrath of urbanization and become hostile to pedestrians. Reasons for failure of various regulatory or on-spot solutions since many preceding years have been speculated differently and exploration for holistic solutions is yet underway. This led into probing the concerns and realization that urban public space has not been assessed in any definitive manner to arrive at resolving the impending issues. The study has devised a methodology of ‘Elderly pedestrian audits’ to gauge the walkability evolved as a model of assessment of the urban space morphology. Strategic proposals as derivatives from the audits have been proposed. Survey results have asserted the conditions of public spaces for walkable quality and substantiated the need to address the walkability concerns in cities of a fast growing elderly nation such as India in the Asian sub-continent.

Dakshayini R Patil Associate Professor and Mamatha P Raj Director and Professor, BMS College of Architecture, Bangalore
District-level Urban Governance Policies in India: Cities of Neglect?

This article deals with district level urban governance policy and planning with respect to two Indian states, Karnataka and Telangana. While there is a clearly envisioned policy for urban governance in India, this article highlights that its implementation continues to remain patchy. It examines whether the constitutional provisions envisaged for the said purposes are being practised or not. The article demonstrates that while the provision of drinking water and sanitation remains a problem across the cities discussed, social capital in terms of making governance work and cope with communal issues too is a major issue. It tries to argue that a better social capital among citizens can be helpful in making the institutions of local urban governance work.

Anil Kumar Vaddiraju Associate Professor, Institute for Social and Economic Change, Bengaluru
Year: 
2019