Level of urbanization has been considered as a measure of development resulting from the change in agrarian societies to industrial ones. An attempt has been made in this paper to study the trends and patterns in urbanization and growth rates of cities and towns for the states of Kerala and West Bengal which are very similar in many demographic, economic and political factors. The contribution of the components of urban growth for both the states has been analyzed. An effort has also been made to look into the levels as well as growth rates of urban population across the different class of cities and towns. The study highlights the spatial growth and distribution of towns centered on the Class I cities of both the states. The study also shows some contrasting role of correlates of urbanization in these two states.Level of urbanization has been considered as a measure of development resulting from the change in agrarian societies to industrial ones. An attempt has been made in this paper to study the trends and patterns in urbanization and growth rates of cities and towns for the states of Kerala and West Bengal which are very similar in many demographic, economic and political factors. The contribution of the components of urban growth for both the states has been analyzed. An effort has also been made to look into the levels as well as growth rates of urban population across the different class of cities and towns. The study highlights the spatial growth and distribution of towns centered on the Class I cities of both the states. The study also shows some contrasting role of correlates of urbanization in these two states.
Household’s decisions are much more complex while choosing where to live and work while also choosing the mode of transport to be used. Housing decisions are interdependent on the workplace location as people reside close to working location so as to reduce the time and cost of commuting. This paper has focused on the aspect of residential location choice for the Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR). Discrete choice modelis one of the family of multinomial logit models used for such analysis. Results indicate that the distance to the Central Business District (CBD), price of the house and family income are the most significant factors that influence the residential location choice.
Parks have been an integral part of cities for centuries. Initially developed for the purpose of recreation and community cohesiveness, parks now play a vital role in improving the quality of life and quality of environment of the city in the wake of rapid urbanization and increasing levels of air and thermal pollution. The Bhopal city is witnessing urbanization like any other major cities of India. The green spaces in the city represents the steps taken to reduce the effects of urbanization. The green space comprises of area with tree cover, which are forest, parks and gardens. These areas provide a comprehensive social, cultural and environmental benefits to the city. This paper discusses the development of various parks and gardens which contribute to the green space of Bhopal. Understanding the attributes of the urban parks and gardens can help provide ways in which the city can maintain and grow the green cover in the sustainable urban planning and development.
The industrial sector being the most prominent driver of economic growth in India, has also significantly contributed to climate change. Consequent negative impacts have been seen on resources, human health and wellbeing. This indicates a need to steer growth towards green industrialization through adoption of green practices in industrial buildings. The research looked at various aspects of green factory rating system developed by Indian Green Building Council (IGBC) as a tool for greening of industrial buildings. The researcher identified fully operational green factories as case studies. A training programme was developed and implemented for randomly selected non-green factories to generate awareness amongst managers. Case profiling of green factories revealed newer technologies and practices adopted by management such as building flush out break out spaces, entryway systems, high efficiency filters etc. The training programme assisted the managers to understand and appreciate how their practices and preferences in their factory buildings can contribute to good working environment thereby leading to a holistic goal of sustainable development. The authors of this paper, call for sensitization of stakeholders towards green building guidelines so that the green movement can be taken forward to have a more sustainable future.
Access to public transit (PT) system is an important determinant of choosing the PT system. In addition to good walking and cycling infrastructure to access the transit, cities across the globe are investing in bike share systems to enhance PT coverage and attractiveness. The benefit of intermodal integration in improving transit ridership making the entire transport chain low carbon is of interest to developed countries and emerging economies alike. Many cities in India are now planning for Bike sharing (BS) projects. While the social benefits of BS are incontestable, we still need to understand the economic value of investing in bike sharing for our cities to make them financially fessible. The paper presents an evaluation framework using validated indicators to analyze the benefits of integrating bike share systems with transit systems in India. It presents a case study (Pune city) and uses substantial city level primary data to illustrate how integrating bike share with public transit systems (Bus system in Pune) can realize these benefits for the city and users. The analysis has shown significant reduction in pollution (1 to 78%), congestion (-1’ to 20%), fuel consumption (1 to 80%), parking demand (1 to 54%) and investment in Motor Vehicle (MV) infrastructure (1-53%) in the city, if the BS system is available for short trips (0-5km) and integration with existing public transit system. The evaluation framework can enable projectization and thus investment in bike sharing systems in India which hitherto have eluded the typical financial feasibility models of transport projects.
This paper enquires into the urban water service provisioning systems in Cuttack, Odisha and explores the work of non-state urban water providers with a specific focus on community water initiatives and their impact on residents in two select low income communities in that city. The study is an inquiry into urban water service provisioning systems in Cuttack, Odisha and explores the existence of different kinds of urban water providers in the city and analyzes one specific community water initiative in a select low-income community in the city. The core focus of the research is on analyzing the social and political impacts of this community water intervention on the lives of the people living in the settlement through a case study approach.
Due to urbanization and rapid industrialization, many of the natural resources have lost their original characteristics. Conservation is not only an urgent need but also a challenging task. Kishangarh, a small town in Ajmer district of Rajasthan, popularly known for its marble industry, has a history which dates back to the prehistoric period. The distinctive landscape and access to water resources are the pivotal aspects of many age-old craft traditions. Kishangarh painting, Kagzi making, wooden crafts, pottery, bangle making, gota making etc., which developed along with cultural landscape of Kishangarh are very much dependent on its natural resources. The natural resources have been exploited unsustainably by the expanding marble industry and haphazard development. The DMIC-Delhi Mumbai industrial corridor designed to increase the potential of the marble industry, adds to degradation of the natural ecosystem. Lack of understanding of traditional methods of resource management results in degradation of natural ecosystem and change in traditional occupation, which in turn leads to loss of traditional skills, migration, and abandonment of the historic town. This paper attempts to understand the traditional wisdom and highlights the issues that need to be addressed. It also gives recommendations to conserve the natural resources through controlled development.
A.K. Jain: Urban Transformation published by Discovery Publishing House, New Delhi